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October 13th, 2022

Need Work? SEE Gun Industry Job Listings on NSSF Website

NSSF gun industry jobs employment center openings hire work

Firearms Industry JobsA number of interesting jobs in the firearms industry have become available in recent weeks. The NSSF maintains a regularly-updated listing of employment opportunities with gun-makers and shooting sports organizations. On the NSSF Career Center right now there are executive openings, engineering jobs, tech placements, account manager positions, sales and marketing positions, and digital media opportunities. Here are some of the jobs we found this week posted on the NSSF Website. CLICK HERE to visit the NSSF Career Center with all current listings.

Firearms Industry Jobs — Current Openings

The gun industry needs skilled personnel! The total number of full-time equivalent jobs in the firearms industry rose from approximately 166,000 in 2008 to almost 342,330 in 2020, a 106% increase. Here are some current job openings posted on the NSSF Career Center:

AimPoint: Creative Content Manager (Virginia)

Crossbreed Holsters: Marketing Director (Missouri)

Davidson’s: Sales Manager (Arizona)

Delta Defense: Field Training Specialist (OH, KY, IN) (Nationwide)

Delta Defense: Outside Sales Executive (Kentucky)

Delta Defense: Outside Sales Executive (Minnesota)

Jones & Company: NW Territory Sales Representative (Washington State)

Leica Sport Optics: Regional Acct. Manager, Eastern/Southern USA (Nationwide)

Magpul Industries: Product Test Technician (Wyoming)

Otis Technology: Central Regional Sales Manager (Nationwide)

Steiner eOptics: Manager U.S. Federal Agencies (Ohio)

SureFire: Product Manager (California)

Target Sports USA: Marketing Director (Connecticut)

Leica Sport Optics job hiring account
Leica Sport Optics is currently seeking a Regional Account Manager, Eastern/Southern USA.

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September 5th, 2022

Ballistics and Bullet TECH — FREE Applied Ballistics Articles

Want to improve your understanding of Ballistics, Bullet Design, Bullet Pointing, and other shooting-related tech topics? Well here’s a treasure trove of gun expertise. Applied Ballistics offers dozens of FREE tech articles on its website. Curious about Coriolis? — You’ll find answers. Want to understand the difference between G1 and G7 BC? — There’s an article about that.

“Doc” Beech, technical support specialist at Applied Ballistics says these articles can help shooters working with ballistics programs: “One of the biggest issues I have seen is the misunderstanding… about a bullet’s ballistic coefficient (BC) and what it really means. Several papers on ballistic coefficient are available for shooters to review on the website.”

Litz applied ballistics PDF articles

Credit Shooting Sports USA Editor John Parker for finding this great resource. John writes: “Our friends at Applied Ballistics have a real gold mine of articles on the science of accurate shooting on their website. This is a fantastic source for precision shooting information[.] Topics presented are wide-ranging — from ballistic coefficients to bullet analysis.”

READ All Applied Ballistics Articles HERE »

Here are six (6) of our favorite Applied Ballistics articles, available for FREE to read online. There are dozens more, all available on the Applied Ballistics Education Webpage. After Clicking link, select Plus (+) Symbol for “White Papers”, then find the article(s) you want in the list. For each selection, then click “Download” in the right column. This will send a PDF version to your device.

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August 21st, 2022

Tangent, Secant, Hybrid — Bullet Geometry Explained by Litz

secant tangent hybrid ogive Bryan Litz Applied ballistics 200X Berger Hybrid bullet, .308 30 Caliber

In discussions of ballistics, you’ll see references to “tangent”, “secant”, and “hybrid” bullet shapes. We know that, for many readers, these terms can be confusing. To add to the confusion, bullet makers don’t always identify their projectiles as secant or tangent designs. This article provides a basic explanation of tangent, secant, and hybrid ogive bullet designs, to help you understand the characteristics of these three basic bullet shapes.

Tangent vs. Secant vs. Hybrid

Most match bullets produced today use a tangent ogive profile, but the modern VLD-style bullets employ a secant profile. To further complicate matters, the latest generation of “Hybrid” projectiles from Berger Bullets feature a blended secant + tangent profile to combine the best qualities of both nose shapes. The secant section provides reduced drag, while the tangent section makes the bullet easier to tune, i.e. less sensitive to bullet seating depth position.

hybrid bullet

Berger Bullets ballistician Bryan Litz explains tangent and secant bullet ogive designs in a glossary section of his Applied Ballistics website, which we reprint below. Bryan then explains how tangent and secant profiles can be combined in a “hybrid” design.

How Bullet Ogive Curves are Defined
While the term “ogive” is often used to describe the particular point on the bullet where the curve reaches full bullet diameter, in fact the “ogive” properly refers to the entire curve of the bullet from the tip to the full-diameter straight section — the shank.

Understanding then, that the ogive is a curve, how is that curve described?

LITZ: The ogive of a bullet is usually characterized by the length of its radius. This radius is often given in calibers instead of inches. For example, an 8 ogive 6mm bullet has an ogive that is a segment of a circular arc with a radius of 8*.243 = 1.952”. A .30-caliber bullet with an 8 ogive will be proportionally the same as the 8 ogive 6mm bullet, but the actual radius will be 2.464” for the .30 caliber bullet.

For a given nose length, if an ogive is perfectly tangent, it will have a very specific radius. Any radius longer than that will cause the ogive to be secant. Secant ogives can range from very mild (short radius) to very aggressive (long radius). The drag of a secant ogive is minimized when its radius is twice as long as a tangent ogive radius. In other words, if a tangent ogive has an 8 caliber radius, then the longest practical secant ogive radius is 16 calibers long for a given nose length.”

Bryan Litz Explains Hybrid Design and Optimal Hybrid Seating Depths

Ogive Metrics and Rt/R Ratio
LITZ: There is a number that’s used to quantify how secant an ogive is. The metric is known as the Rt/R ratio and it’s the ratio of the tangent ogive radius to the actual ogive radius for a given bullet. In the above example, the 16 caliber ogive would have an Rt/R ratio of 0.5. The number 0.5 is therefore the lowest practical value for the Rt/R ratio, and represents the minimum drag ogive for a given length. An ogive that’s perfectly tangent will have an Rt/R ratio of 1.0. Most ogives are in between an Rt/R of 1.0 and 0.5. The dimensioned drawings at the end of my Applied Ballistics book provide the bullets ogive radius in calibers, as well as the Rt/R ratio. In short, the Rt/R ratio is simply a measure of how secant an ogive is. 1.0 is not secant at all, 0.5 is as secant as it gets.

Berger Hybrid bullet, .308 30 CaliberHybrid Bullet Design — Best of Both Worlds?
Bryan Litz has developed a number of modern “Hybrid” design bullets for Berger. The objective of Bryan’s design work has been to achieve a very low drag design that is also “not finicky”. Normal (non-hybrid) secant designs, such as the Berger 105gr VLD, deliver very impressive BC values, but the bullets can be sensitive to seating depth. Montana’s Tom Mousel has set world records with the Berger 105gr VLD in his 6mm Dasher, but he tells us “seating depth is critical to the best accuracy”. Tom says a mere .003″ seating depth change “makes a difference”. In an effort to produce more forgiving high-BC bullets, Bryan Litz developed the hybrid tangent/secant bullet shape.

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July 27th, 2022

Modern Advancements in Long Range Shooting, Vol. III Available

Bryan Litz Applied ballistics Modern Advancements Long range shooting III Volume 3

The Science of Accuracy Academy is now accepting pre-orders for the newest book in the Modern Advancements series by Bryan Litz. The book, titled Modern Advancements in Long Range Shooting, Volume III can be pre-ordered now for $44.95. Pre-ordered books are expected to ship by early September.

The Modern Advancements series is an ongoing journal of the R&D activities at Applied Ballistics. Theories of ballistics are explored “myth-buster” style with extensive live fire testing. Employing state-of-the-art ballistic instrumentation including Doppler Radar and high-speed (Phantom) video, the Applied Ballistics team has made key insights about ballistics which are then shared through books and the Science of Accuracy Academy.

This 3rd Volume of the series has 13 Chapters. The book features four main parts: Part 1: Precision Testing, Part 2: Advanced Handloading, Part 3: Doppler Radar Testing, and Part 4: Miscellaneous.

Bryan Litz Applied ballistics Modern Advancements Long range shooting III Volume 3

Pre-orders for individuals and dealers opened July 26, 2022, and end when the books ship in late August or early September. During the pre-order phase, subscribers of The Science of Accuracy Academy will get a $20 off coupon for the new book. Other ballistics books by Bryan Litz are available through the Science of Accuracy Academy STORE.

Bryan Litz Applied ballistics Modern Advancements Long range shooting III Volume 3

About Applied Ballistics
Applied Ballistics’ mission is to be a complete, unbiased source of external ballistics information for long-range shooters. We’re highly active in R&D, constantly testing new claims, products, and ideas for potential merit and dispensing with the marketing hype which can make it so difficult for shooters to master the challenging discipline of long-range shooting.

We believe in the scientific method and promote mastery through an understanding of the fundamentals. Our work serves the shooting community via instructional materials which are easy to understand, and products such as ballistic software which runs on many platforms. If you’re a long-range shooter who’s eager to learn about the science of your craft, we’re here for you.

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May 20th, 2022

How Muzzle Velocity Changes with Different Barrel Twist Rates

applied Ballistics Barrel Twist rate velocity testing test bryan Litz
Many barrel-makers mark the twist rate and bore dimensions on their barrel blanks.

Does muzzle velocity change with faster or slower barrel twist rates? Absolutely, but much less than you might think. Faster twist rates do slow down bullets somewhat, but the speed loss is NOT that significant. With Bartlein .308 Win barrels of identical length and contour, a 1:12″-twist barrel was only 8 fps faster than a 1:8″-twist barrel. That was the result of testing by Applied Ballistics.

The Applied Ballistics team tested six (6) same-length/same-contour Bartlein barrels to observe how twist rate might affect muzzle velocity. This unique, multi-barrel test is featured in the book Modern Advancements in Long Range Shooting, Vol. 1. That book includes other fascinating field tests, including a comprehensive chronograph comparison.

applied Ballistics Barrel Twist rate velocity testing test bryan Litz

applied Ballistics Barrel Twist rate velocity testing test bryan Litz
Barrel Twist Rate vs. Velocity — What Tests Reveal
by Bryan Litz
When considering barrel twist rates, it’s a common belief that faster twist rates will reduce muzzle velocity. The thinking is that the faster twist rate will resist forward motion of the bullet and slow it down. There are anecdotal accounts of this, such as when someone replaces a barrel of one brand/twist with a different brand and twist and observes a different muzzle velocity. But how do you know the twist rate is what affected muzzle velocity and not the barrel finish, or bore/groove dimensions? Did you use the same chronograph to measure velocity from both barrels? Do you really trust your chronograph?

Summary of Test Results
After all the smoke cleared, we found that muzzle velocity correlates to twist rate at the average rate of approximately 1.33 FPS per inch of twist. In other words, your velocity is reduced by about 5 FPS if you go from a 1:12″ twist to a 1:8″ twist. — Bryan Litz

Savage Test Rifle with Six Bartlein Barrels
Barrel Twist Rate Velocity Modern Advancements Book Bryan Litz Applied Ballistics

Most shooters don’t have access to the equipment required to fully explore questions like this. These are exactly the kinds of things we examine in the book Modern Advancements in Long Range Shooting, Vol. 1. In that book, we present experiments conducted in the Applied Ballistics lab. Some of those experiments took on a “Myth Buster” tone as we sought to confirm (or deny) popular pre-conceptions. For example, here’s how we approached the question of barrel twist and muzzle velocity.

Six .308 Win Barrels from Bartlein — All Shot from the Same Rifle
We acquired six (6) barrels from the same manufacturer (Bartlein), all the same length and contour, and all chambered with the same reamer (SAAMI spec .308 Winchester). All these barrels were fitted to the same Savage Precision Target action, and fired from the same stock, and bench set-up. Common ammo was fired from all six barrels having different twist rates and rifling configurations. In this way, we’re truly able to compare what effect the actual twist rate has on muzzle velocity with a reasonable degree of confidence.

Prior to live fire testing, we explored the theoretical basis of the project, doing the physics. In this case, an energy balance is presented which predicts how much velocity you should expect to lose for a bullet that’s got a little more rotational energy from the faster twist. In the case of the .30 caliber 175 grain bullets, the math predicts a loss of 1.25 fps per inch-unit of barrel twist (e.g. a 1:8″ twist is predicted to be 1.25 fps slower than a 1:9″ twist).

Barrel Twist Rate Velocity Modern Advancements Book Bryan Litz Applied Ballistics

Above, data shows relationship between Twist Rate and Muzzle Velocity (MV) for various barrel twist rates and rifling types. From fast to slow, the three 1:10″ twist barrels are: 5R (canted land), 5 Groove, 5 Groove left-hand twist.

We proceeded with testing all 6 barrels, with twist rates from 1:8″ to 1:12″. After all the smoke cleared, we found that muzzle velocity correlates to twist rate at the average rate of approximately 1.33 fps per inch of twist. In other words, your velocity is reduced by about 5 fps if you go from a 1:12″ twist to a 1:8″ twist. [Editor: That’s an average for all the lengths tested. The actual variance between 1:12″ and 1:8″ here was 8 FPS.] In this case the math prediction was pretty close, and we have to remember that there’s always uncertainty in the live fire results. Uncertainty is always considered in terms of what conclusions the results can actually support with confidence.

Barrel Twist Rate Velocity Modern Advancements Book Bryan Litz Applied BallisticsThis is just a brief synopsis of a single test case. The coverage of twist rates in Modern Advancements in Long-Range Shooting Vol. 1 is more detailed, with multiple live fire tests. Results are extrapolated for other calibers and bullet weights. Needless to say, the question of “how twist rate affects muzzle velocity” is fully answered.

Other chapters in the book’s twist rate section include:
· Stability and Drag — Supersonic
· Stability and Drag — Transonic
· Spin Rate Decay
· Effect of Twist rate on Precision

Other sections of the book include: Modern Rifles, Scopes, and Bullets as well as Advancements in Predictive Modeling. This book is sold through the Applied Ballistics online store. Modern Advancements in Long Range Shooting is also available as an eBook in Amazon Kindle format.

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April 29th, 2022

Team Competition — How to Make and Use a Wind Plot

wind plot Bryan Litz FCWC Canada F-Class World Championship
CLICK HERE to see full-screen version of Wind Plot.

Team shooting is very different than individual competition. Typically a team coach makes the wind calls for the shooters. In some cases (where the rules allow), the wind coach even dials elevation and windage changes for the active shooter. For the wind coach to do his job effectively, he must follow the changes in the wind and determine what the correct wind call should have been for each shot. (In other words — what was the “right call”)

Bryan Litz, founder of Applied Ballistics and Past USA F-TR National Champion, served as wind coach for the winning 4-man F-TR Team at the 2017 Canadian F-Class Championships, which preceded the F-Class World Championships also held in Canada. Here Bryan explains how he has used a Wind Plot to make better wind calls, helping his team-mates maximize their scores.

wind calling plot log technique

Wind Plot Methodology by Bryan Litz

The wind plot I use is a running history of what the correct wind call was for every shot fired. The more you shoot, the more history you have in a condition, and I find that very useful information. This kind of plot IS NOT showing where the bullet hit, and is NOT showing what you held. It’s showing what you should have held to center each shot. IMO, this is the most valuable information to have when guessing where to hold next for each shot. Here are some key points:

1. I always look for blocks of stable conditions to shoot in and wait out the rest.

2. If the wind plot shows drastic changes, either I’m not picking the right time to shoot or it’s just a really unstable wind condition.

3. When you see many shots using the same hold (e.g. Robby’s 700m and 900m strings on plot), it can indicate very fast shooting and fast pit service.

Q. What are the numbers and Markings on this Wind Plot?
Litz: The wind plot represents the rings on the target. Left 2 for example, is the 5 line on the international target, while Left 2 is the 10 line on the USA target. F-Class shooters and coaches talk about wind holds in relation to these rings. A Left 2 hold isn’t left 2 MOA or 2 MILS, it’s the second ring from center. The vertical lines on the plot represent the rings going out from center, 4 or 5 in each direction. A left or right 5 hold is edge of black on the int’l target.

wind plot Bryan Litz FCWC Canada F-Class World Championship

Q: What Does this Specific Plot Reveal?
Litz: Looking at the plot, from left to right is 700m, 800m, and 900m that we shot progressively through the day. Top to bottom shows each shooter in sequence (shooters names are shown by their blocks). To the right I note what was on the gun for that shooter, and note when it changes. Often times we run the same wind on the gun for several shooters but if it changes, I note what the new windage is and continue on. For example if we’re settled into a condition where we’re shooting Vs with a right 3 hold, I might adjust the scope 1 MOA right because a right 3 hold is equal to 1 MOA. So we can move the scope and start shooting with a center hold.

Q. Are you Plotting Where the Bullet Hits?
Litz: Not exactly. This kind of plot IS NOT specifically showing where the bullet hit, and IS NOT showing what the shooter held. It’s showing what the shooter should have held to center each shot. IMO, this is the most valuable information to have when guessing where to hold next for each shot.

On each shot, the shooter or coach takes a guess about where to hold, and fires the shot. If the bullet hits the center, you plot the point right where you held because it was the correct hold. However, if you miss the call, you plot what hold was required to put that shot in the center. For example if you shoot a right 3 and hit where you held, the correct call would have been “center”. In this way, you’re building a history of what you should have done, which may or may not be what you actually did. This shows you the trends, and brackets which can be used to make future decisions.

Q: Is this Type of Wind Plot Something New?
Litz: I didn’t invent this method, it’s been around a long time. Vertical can be plotted the same way. In team matches, we have a plotter who is advising on elevation trends and suggesting corrections. But, as wind coach, my job is the horizontal so I only keep the wind plot. I have learned lots of strategies from my coaches Emil Praslick and Steve Hardin.

There are many ways to plot and many standard work sheets for this. They’re all tools and the key is to find something that works for you in different situations. I don’t keep a plot when I am personally behind the trigger string firing because I lose more points when I take the time to do it vs. just shooting fast. When pair firing or coaching, I can keep the wind plot without compromising the shooting.

2013 F-Class World Championships
Here Team Australia used plots and communication gear linking coaches. This helped the Aussies win the 2013 F-Open Team World Championship held at Raton, NM.

Know Your Goal — Keep It Simple
Know your goal of plotting. The simplest plot is where you write the shot number where it hit on a target face. This kind of plotting is useful for evaluating shooter performance because it shows how big the group is (in particular the vertical dispersion). However keeping a plot like this does little to help you figure out the wind. It just shows you what shots you messed up on. It does nothing to help you find the center. [Editor: That’s a whole different matter with many variables.] The wind plot I use is a running history of what the correct wind call was for every shot fired. The more you shoot, the more history you have in a condition, and I find that very useful information.

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April 19th, 2022

Wind Speed or Wind Direction — What Counts Most?

Wind reading bryan litz speed direction

Wind-Reading Lesson from Bryan Litz

Q: What’s more important — wind speed, or direction?

A: Obviously they both matter, but they do trade dominance based on direction. For example, a 10 mph wind between 2:30 and 3:30 is only changing its value from 9.7 to 10 to 9.7 mph (bracket of 0.3 mph). However a 10 mph wind between 11:30 and 12:30 is changing its cross wind component value from 2.6 mph left to zero to 2.6 mph right (bracket of 5.2 mph). There is the same 30° change in direction, but this results in a massively different bracket.

Point being, in this case, a direction change is far more critical if it’s near 6 or 12 o’clock. A small direction change when it’s close to 3 or 9 o’clock is negligible.

On the contrary, a change in wind SPEED when it’s near 3 or 9 affects your crosswind component directly. But for a near head or tail wind, a fluctuation in wind speed only causes a small fraction of a change to the crosswind component.

SUMMARY: If you’re in a near full-value wind, pay more attention to wind SPEED. If you’re closer to a head- or tail-wind, nailing the exact DIRECTION will be more important.

Get More Tips on Bryan Litz Ballistics Facebook Page
This post is from the new Bryan Litz Ballistics Facebook Page. FB users should check that page regularly for more tips from Bryan, American’s leading ballistics expert and founder of Applied Ballistics LLC.

READ MORE TIPS HERE: www.Facebook.com/BryanLitzBallitics

Bryan Litz coaching Team USA in Canada using a WIND PLOT.

BIG NEWS Coming Soon: Bryan Litz and Applied Ballistics will make a Major Announcement tonight, April 19, 2022. The Announcement will be featured on Facebook and other Social Media, and we’ll have a report in tomorrow’s Daily Bulletin.

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April 2nd, 2022

Saturday at the Movies: Litz on Long Range Shooting + Ballistics

Bryan Litz Elements Long Range Shooting NSSF Ballistics Coeffecient Atmospherics

Want to learn more about Long Range Shooting? Check out the NSFF “Elements of Long Range Shooting” videos hosted by ballistics guru Bryan Litz of Applied Ballistics. In this multi-part series, Bryan covers a variety of topics of interest to precision shooters. For today’s Saturday at the Movies special, we feature seven of Bryan’s videos. Watch other informative Long Range Shooting and Ballistics videos with Bryan Litz on the NSSF YouTube Channel.

Litz NSSF Video Elements long range shooting Raton NM ELR

Atmospherics and Density Altitude

Bryan Litz explains: “An important element in calculating an accurate firing solution for long-range shooting is understanding the effects of atmospherics on a projectile.” Atmospherics include air pressure, air temperature, and humidity. Bryan notes: “Temperature, pressure, and humidity all affect the air density… that the bullet is flying through. You can combine all those factors into one variable called ‘Density Altitude’.” Density Altitude is used by the ballistic solver to account for variables that affect bullet flight.

Bullet Ballistic Coefficients

A bullet’s ballistic coefficient (BC) basically expresses how well the bullet flies through the air. Higher BC bullets have less aerodynamic drag than lower BC projectiles. You will see BCs listed as either G1 and G7 numbers. These correspond to different bullet shape models. Generally speaking, the G7 model works better for the long, boat-tail bullets used for long-range shooting. Notably, a bullet’s drag is NOT constant in flight. The true BC can vary over the course of the trajectory as the bullet velocity degrades. In other words, “BC is dynamic”. That said, you can make very accurate drop charts using the BCs provided by major bullet-makers, as plugged into solvers. However, long-range competitors may want to record “real world” drop numbers at various distances. For example, we’ve seen trajectories be higher than predicted at 500 yards, yet lower than predicted at 1000.

Transonic Range

When considering your rifle’s long-range performance, you need to understand the limit of your bullet’s supersonic range. As the bullet slows below the speed of sound, it enters the transonic zone. This can be accompanied by variations in stability as well as BC changes. Bryan explains “once your bullet slows done below supersonic and you get into transonic effects, there are a lot more considerations that come into play. The drag of the bullet becomes less certain, the stability of the bullet can be challenged, and things related to long times of flight, such as Coriolis and Spin Drift, come into play. So whenever you are shooting long range you need to where your bullet slows down to about 1340 fps.”

Ballistics Solvers — Many Options

Bryan Litz observes: “When we talk about the elements of long range shooting, obviously a very important element is a getting a fire solution, using a ballistic solver. There are a lot of ballistic solvers out there… Applied Ballistics has smartphone Apps. Applied Ballistics has integrated the ballistic solver directly into a Kestral, and the same solver runs (manually) on the Accuracy Solutions Wiz-Wheel. The point is, if it is an Applied Ballistics device it is running the same solutions across the board.”

Bullet Stability and Twist Rates

In this video, Bryan Litz talks about bullet in-flight stability and how to calculate barrel twist-rate requirements for long-range bullets. Bryan explains that bullet stability (for conventional projectiles) is basically provided by the spinning of the bullet. But this spin rate is a function of BOTH the nominal twist rate of the barrel AND the velocity of the projectile. Thus, when shooting the same bullet, a very high-speed cartridge may work with a slower barrel twist rate than is required for a lower-speed (less powerful) cartridge. For match bullets, shot at ranges to 1000 yards and beyond, Bryan recommends a twist rate that offers good stability.

Scope Tracking — Tall Target Test

Scope Click Verify Elevation Tall Target Bryan Litz NSSF test turret MOA MIL

Have you recently purchased a new scope? Then you should verify the actual click value of the turrets before you use the optic in competition. While a scope may have listed click values of 1/4-MOA, 1/8-MOA or 0.1 Mils, the reality may be slightly different. Many scopes have actual click values that are slightly higher or lower than the value claimed by the manufacturer. The small variance adds up when you click through a wide range of elevation. In this video, Bryan Litz shows how to verify your true click values using a “Tall Target Test”. The idea is to start at the bottom end of a vertical line, and then click up 30 MOA or so. Multiply the number of clicked MOA by 1.047 to get the claimed value in inches. For example, at 100 yards, 30 MOA is exactly 31.41 inches. Then measure the difference in your actual point of impact.

Coriolis Effect

The Coriolis Effect comes into play with extreme long-range shots. The rotation of the earth actually moves the target a small distance (in space) during the long duration of the bullet’s flight. Bryan Litz notes that, in most common shooting situations inside 1K, Coriolis is not significant. At 1000 yards, the Effect represents less than one click (for most cartridge types). Even well past 1000 yards, in windy conditions, the Coriolis Effect may well be “lost in the noise”. But in very calm conditions, when shooting at extreme ranges, Bryan says you can benefit from adjusting your ballistics solution for Coriolis: “The Coriolis Effect… has to do with the spin of the earth. The consequence of that is that, if the flight time of the bullet gets significantly long, the bullet can have an apparent drift from its intended target. The amount [of apparent drift] is very small — it depends on your latitude and azimuth of fire on the planet.”

About Bryan Litz
Bryan began his career as a rocket scientist, quite literally. He then started Applied Ballistics, the leading company focusing on ballistics science for rifle shooting. A past F-TR Long-Range National Champion and Chief Ballistician for Berger Bullets, knows his stuff. His Applied Ballistics squad was the winning team at the 2017 King of 2 Miles event, and Applied Ballistics has earned major U.S. defense contracts.

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March 22nd, 2022

BC Variance from Bullet Jacket Damage Can Increase Vertical

applied ballistics mobile lab schedule

Here’s a smart tip from Bryan Litz, explaining how damage to a bullet jacket can harm the projectile’s Ballistic Coefficient (BC). This tip is posted on Bryan’s new Bryan Litz Ballistics Facebook page. We recommend you subscribe to that page to access Bryan’s latest informative posts.

Bryan notes: “If the case mouth scratches the bullet when you seat it, the damage can cause the BC to be inconsistent, which shows up as vertical dispersion at long range.

We see this sometimes when running Doppler Radar for competitors at Applied Ballistics Mobile Lab events. If someone is shooting a bullet that typically has a very consistent BC (1% or less) but they’re seeing a higher BC variation, it can be due to the bullets being damaged in the loading process.”

The lead photo above shows the badly-scratched jacket of a bullet seated in a rough-mouthed case. To prevent such jacket damage, one should chamfer, deburr, and smooth case mouths after trimming.

Below is a recorded Doppler radar result showing excessive BC variation. Such variation can increase vertical disperson at long range. This can result in larger group sizes and lower scores.

applied ballistics mobile lab schedule

applied ballistics mobile lab schedule

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March 17th, 2022

How to Use a Kestrel with Applied Ballistics Software

Kestrel Wind Meter F-Class John Applied Ballistics

Kestrel wind and weather meters are often regarded as the best on the market — for good reason. Here are a series of three videos by F-Class John that show how the Kestrel 5700 with Elite Ballistics works. This article reviews the advanced Kestrel 5700 Elite Wind Meter with sophisticated ballistics capabilities. Our review features three videos by F-Class John that show how the Kestrel 5700 Elite functions with Applied Ballistics APP software and LiNK connection.

Kestrel Wind Meter F-Class John Applied Ballistics

This Part I Video starts with a basic Kestrel Anemometer (blue case, 00:00-00:40) wind meter. Then reviewer F-Class John looks at the “smart” Kestrel 5700 with Elite Ballistics. John explains the many features of the Kestrel 5700 and how it holds a powerful ballistics calculator in the convenient, easy-to-tote Kestrel package. With Elite Ballistics, once you enter data about your bullets, velocity, zero, and rifle, the Kestrel can calculate come-ups and wind corrections. If you don’t yet own a Kestrel, we highly recommend you watch this series of videos that explains advanced Kestrel features in detail.

This Part II Video shows the key features of the advanced software APP used by the Kestrel 5700 unit with Elite Ballistics. The Kestrel 5700 can “talk” to a mobile device that runs the Applied Ballistics software APP that contains bullet databases and allows you to enter key information such as muzzle velocity, bullet BC, zero distance, velocity, wind, and environmental factors (altitude, temperature etc.). There are also gun-specific factors such as scope height over bore and barrel twist rate. The video also explains how “range cards” are created and how to view them with your Elite Ballistics-enabled Kestrel. John notes: “The APP is great because you don’t have to fiddle with the Kestrel’s buttons. It’s much easier to enter data and change settings with the APP.”

This Part III video shows how to determine true wind direction by aligning the SIDE of the unit into the wind. You essentially want to set the unit 90 degrees to the wind direction so the impeller runs as slowly as possible. Then, after you set your target distance (See 3:03), the unit can give you precise come-ups for your intended target (10.28 MOA for 559 yards here). The Kestrel then calculates the cross-wind correction as well (See 3:12).

DISCLAIMER: This video and description contains affiliate links, which means that if you click on one of the product links, the video author may receive a small commission. This helps support F-Class John’s YouTube channel and allows him to continue to make videos like this.

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February 3rd, 2022

Get Personal Drag Models with Applied Ballistics Mobile Lab

Applied Ballistics Mobile Laboratory 2022

Applied Ballistics (AB) has announced the deployment schedule for the Applied Ballistics Mobile Laboratory during the 2022 shooting season. The Applied Ballistics Crew will be driving the Mobile Lab Truck and Trailer to a number of important shooting events in 2022. At these events you can get a Personal Drag Model (PDM) for your rifle/load based on Doppler Radar testing. The first deployment will be at the Bomber Run match in Indiana on February 18, 2022, just two weeks away. Here is the overall 2022 schedule:

Applied Ballistics Mobile Laboratory 2022

The Applied Ballistics Mobile Lab trailer carries a vast array of equipment including computers, sensors, and advanced Doppler Radar equipment. The Doppler Radar is employed to create custom ballistic profiles (aka “Personal Drag Models”) for shooters at major matches.

Applied Ballistics Mobile Laboratory 2022

Personal Drag Models (PDMs) provide shooters with exact, precise ballistics data for their preferred ammo as fired in their match rifles. This is especially important for rimfire ammo which may start supersonic, then go transonic, and finish well subsonic during much of its flight. Bryan Litz explains: “The Doppler Radar system allows us to track the bullet’s velocity as it flies down-range. As the bullet’s velocity decays, that’s what tells you the ballistic coefficient, the drag, and [other factors].”

About the Applied Ballistics Mobile Lab

Q: What is the basic purpose of the Applied Ballistics Mobile Lab?

Mitchell Fitzpatrick: The Mobile Lab allows us to effectively carry out ballistics testing in the field and at events. It has most of the capabilities of our normal lab, but on wheels.

Q: What hardware and electronics are carried in the Mobile Lab? What are its capabilities?

Bryan Litz: The Mobile Lab will transport most everything that’s in the main lab including the Doppler radar. This rig is new and we haven’t fully outfitted it yet. The load-outs will be somewhat flexible depending on the venue we are supporting.

Applied Ballistics Mobile Laboratory 2022
Applied Ballistics Mobile Laboratory 2022
Applied Ballistics Mobile Laboratory 2022
Applied Ballistics Mobile Laboratory 2022

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January 8th, 2022

Saturday at the Movies: Five Informative Videos to Start 2022

Rodzilla T-Rex front rest shooting F-Class benchrest review

Saturday at the Movies

The online video format is a superior method of presenting information on reloading techniques, rifle maintenance, marksmanship skills, scope operation and much more. But with millions of videos on YouTube, it can be hard to cherry-pick the best videos for serious shooters and competitors. That’s why we offer this Saturday at the Movies Series. Each week we will select a variety of very informative videos by knowledgeable shooters and handloaders. Here are our first five Saturday Select videos for 2022.

Reading the Wind — How to Determine Wind Speed

Keith Glasscock is a top-tier F-Class shooter who has finished second at the F-Class Nationals multiple times. Keith is also a highly-respected wind coach with a background in commercial aviation — so he really understands wind and weather. In this video Keith explains the best techniques for reading the speed of the wind. He notes that you can’t simply rely on the Kestrel in your hand because the wind speed can vary significantly between the firing line and the targets. Keith shows how to look at multiple signs (including flags, grass movement, and mirage) to better understand wind velocity. See more of Keith’s videos on his Winning in the Wind YouTube channel.

Rodzilla T-Rex Front Rest Review — State-of-the-Art Beast


Rodzilla T-Rex front rest shooting F-Class benchrest review

In this video our friend F-Class John reviews the impressive T-Rex front rest from Rodzilla.This recently-introduced joystick front rest from Rodzilla really represents significant innovation. The new T-Rex offers impressive capabilities based on the innovative design by creator Rod Brackage (the “Rod” in Rodzilla”> that can truly take your shooting experience to the next level. F-Class John used this rest in F-Open competition and really likes it. CLICK HERE for John’s full review with three videos and many more photos.

How BAT Actions Are Made and BAT Factory Tour


Note: This has loud music as the start — lower volume if at work.

Ultimate Reloader’s Gavin Gear is a skilled and respected video producer. This Ultimate Reloader video shows how top-end BAT rifle actions are crafted with modern CNC machinery. This is one of Gavin’s most popular videos, with 763,000+ views. If you are interested in accurate rifles for benchrest, F-Class, Long Range, or PRS/NRL you should definitely watch this video. Visit Gavin’s YouTube Channel to see dozens of other informative, well-made videos.

Protect Your Dog’s Hearing with Mutt Muffs

Do you take your dog(s) hunting, or to the shooting range? Well dogs need hearing protection too! Loud gunshots from pistols, rifles, or shotguns can cause permanent hearing damage to your canine. Prevent canine hearing loss with Mutt Muffs — protective earmuffs designed especially for dogs. In the Precision Riflecraft video, the host shows how to fit Mutt Muffs to your dogs and help your canines tolerate the muffs in place. Available in five sizes (XS, S, M, L, XL), these cost under $60 on Amazon.

How to Use Ballistics Solvers — Bryan Litz Lesson

A past national F-TR champion, Bryan Litz is a brilliant engineer and trained rocket scientist. He is also the founder of Applied Ballistics LLC (AB), the world’s leading source of ballistics software. AB software now comes integrated into some Kestrel handheld wind-reading units, with accompanying Applied Ballistics Apps that run on your mobile devices. In this short video Bryan explains how to use ballistics solvers to determine your bullet’s drop and drift at long range. If you don’t have the AB App on your smartphone you can also use the excellent JBM Ballistics Solver, available FREE on the internet.

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January 6th, 2022

Leica Geovid 3200.com LRF Binoculars — Hunting Field Test

leica geovid 3200.com laser ranging rangfinder binoculars colton reid field test

Leica Geovid 3200.COM 10×42 Rangefinding Binoculars

Field Test and Hunt Review by Colton Reid
Dawn breaks. It’s a brisk 28 degrees. I sit concealed amongst a grove of fallen trees near the edge of a steep decline where I can see the canyon below and opposing hillsides. Snow blankets the mountainous slopes with patches of fir and naked aspen woven into the landscape. The soft glow of sunrise brightens southeastern slopes and illuminates a solitary statue of orange and green on an adjacent ridge. His presence alerts an already wary elk of the danger that moved in the night before.

It is second rifle season in Colorado and I have a cow elk tag in hand. I would love to say this is not my first rodeo, but in many ways it is. I’m on my first hunt in pursuit of an elk and my first hunt in Colorado. It is, however, the second test of my newest piece of hunting equipment — Leica’s latest, state-of-the-art Geovid 3200.COM 10×42 rangefinding binoculars.

Early morning light in Colorado, on a hunt for elk…
leica geovid 3200.com laser ranging rangfinder binoculars colton reid field test

These laser rangefinder binoculars I purchased for myself from the good people at EuroOptic.com. I should note that I am not sponsored by EuroOptic or Leica. I happen to know a few people at EuroOptic and they are a knowledgeable friendly group who use the gear they sell.

When I evaluate optics I have a clear priority in how I rank them. At the top of the list is optical quality. That is, how clear is the optical image? How crisp are the edges? Can I resolve and distinguish similar small items? Anyone who has been hunting in the great American West knows that most of your time is spent behind optics of some sort, so it is best to buy optics that make it easier to spot your target and are easy on your eyes.

Second on the list is a combination of weight and durability. I tend to hunt rugged backcountry terrain, so weight is a big consideration for my trips. But if something is feather light but breaks when you sneeze? That isn’t good either. So a combination of a robust rubberized body with modest additional weight is desired. And since the Geovid 3200.COM is a combination optic, i.e. it includes a laser rangefinder, then that helps with weight since I don’t need a separate LRF.

Third on this list is the rangefinder’s performance. By performance I mean mostly accuracy and precision of the measurement. I can live with a max of 500 yards, as long as the measurement is correct and repeatable to within a handful of yards. If, however, the measurement is off by 10% (50 yards in the case of a 500-yard reading) or measurement to measurement varies by say 20 yards, then that will dramatically affect my ability to make an ethical shot.

The Geovid’s laser ranging beam showed excellent precision. Here it picks up a single male pronghorn (not broadside) at nearly 400 yards. The return was immediate.
leica geovid 3200.com laser ranging rangfinder binoculars colton reid field test

Other considerations such as ergonomics or comfort are less important to me because they start to move away from “functional” requirements. That is, they don’t make a big difference when it comes to spotting and harvesting an animal. So while I do think about “nice to have” features when selecting equipment, they are of lower consideration than the functional requirements.

With my framework for evaluation laid out then, here is my assessment. The Leica Geovid 3200.COM 10x42s are high-quality rangefinding binoculars — well made, with good materials, and a thoughtful design. They weigh a mere 34.6 ounces (about 2 lbs.) and are built to withstand more than a few falls. They also come with both objective and ocular lens caps. Even though they are built tough, I would not take these into the field without some sort of binocular case. I personally use a Badlands Bino case (see top and bottom photos) but there are plenty of other good options.

This 6-minute Leica factory video shows the technical features and operations of the Geovid 3200.COM series of rangefinding binoculars. Worth watching:

The glass is amazing — remarkably good (and I have high standards). The image is extremely crisp, noticeably better than my tried and true pair of Swarovski Habicht 10×40 Porro prism binoculars. This matters because the exaggerated hand motion observed in higher power optics, aka “shake”, initially made me dizzy. Leica does offer a lower power unit, the Geovid 3200.com 8×42, for those who prefer less magnification. One could argue that the optics being too sharp means they aren’t a good fit, however, my philosophy is to get the best gear possible and figure out how to use it to the max potential. My solution here was an ultralight tripod to stabilize the image when glassing or if weight is a factor I place my arms on my knees while leaning against a tree or rock. Scouting with these binoculars over long periods on a stable platform is a pleasant experience. Shown belong is the Geovid mounted on my tripod.

leica geovid 3200.com laser ranging rangfinder binoculars colton reid field test

The Geovids present a bright, crisp image, with excellent distance distinction (pop out effect) — all characteristics of high quality optics. The image at the edge of the field of view is less sharp, but that is typical, even for scientific glass. Because the binocular image quality is so good, the image quality change when I go to my spotting scope is a much shorter jump than with previous binoculars. That means I can resolve more items with the binoculars and therefore only go to my Swarovski spotting scope when I really want to clarify something. Overall A+ optics.

Over 950 yards — yes that is what we were looking for…
leica geovid 3200.com laser ranging rangfinder binoculars colton reid field test

The rangefinder is top shelf. One innovation I like about these rangefinding binoculars is that Leica put the laser source outside of the optic tube. That means the source is unimpeded by additional optics allowing for more power transmission and reflection. They also implemented the patented Perger prism which incorporates the rangefinder into the base optical design as opposed to using extra optics to “modify” a non-laser rangefinder configuration. As an engineer I love the idea of function integration and minimizing components. It usually makes for a more efficient and superior performing design.

One other impressive feature is the ability to link to a rangefinder program. The Leica website explains: “Thanks to Bluetooth® connection, [the Geovid 3200.com] can be paired to either the Leica Hunting App to adjust and manage quickly and easily on the fly, or to a LINK-enabled Kestrel windmeter to get results from the Kestrel right in your Range Finder[.] In addition, users will benefit from various integrated atmospheric sensors, such as temperature, air pressure and inclination sensors, producing angle-compensated distance measering for shooting uphill or downhill with maximum precision.”

Testing Laser Ranging Performance
To test the Geovid’s laser rangefinder I did my usual measurement of different objects near my house and checked the accuracy with Google earth. I was able to consistently range larger objects (trees, hills, rocks) out to about 2200 yards, which is longer than I would ever shoot, but good when planning where to move for my next vantage point. I was also able to range a large reflective target (pedestrian overpass) out to a staggering 3300+ yards (see below).

In this video, the Geovid ranges a concrete pedestrian overpass at distance of 3334 yards.

I suspect the max range I can consistently get with large, non-reflective objects is somewhere around 2400 yards, but didn’t have the opportunity to test that specific distance. The rangefinder had some trouble at shorter distances and through thick branches. Around 25 to 45 yards I would get several yards variation when ranging tree trunks. Tall grass and a nest of tree branches would also interfere with the measurement. I would either get a slightly incorrect reading or no reading at all. This might come up if I am trying to range a buck bedded in tall grass. That is a drawback for me because that is a typical situation in archery. My workaround was to range nearby objects and estimate the handful of yards separation between the ranged item and target.

Summary: Geovid 3200.COM Rangefinding Binoculars Are Excellent
In summary, the Leica Geovid 3200.COM rangefinder binoculars are excellent in all key respects. The glass is top-notch and the rangefinding performance is very impressive. The modern Bluetooth connectivity is a plus. These Leica Geovids offer a slightly better price point than their equivalent competitors and are the optics I bought with my own money. I doubt you will be disappointed.

leica geovid 3200.com laser ranging rangfinder binoculars colton reid field test

New for 2022 — Leica Geovid Pro 32 RangeFinding Binoculars

Smaller, Lighter, with Applied Ballistics and GPS Mapping Integration
Trading on the success of the Geovid 3200.COM series, on 1/6/2022, Leica announced a new smaller, lighter version, with enhanced software — the Leica Geovid Pro 32. Weight 30.6 ounces, this is about 4 oz. lighter than the original, and 0.83 inches shorter. With notably smaller objective lenses (32mm for the Pro 32 vs. 42mm with the Geovid 3200.com) these new Geovid Pro 32s should be easier to hold for extended periods, but they may give up a bit of low light capability compared to their bigger brothers.

leica pro 32 new 2022 geovid 3200.com laser ranging rangfinder binoculars colton reid field test

The other big news is enhanced software in the Pro 32: “Leica Geovid Pro was built ground up to combine the on-board atmospheric sensors with NEW on-board Applied Ballistics[.] The Geovid Pro comes standard with Applied Ballistics Ultralight … upgradable to Applied Ballistics Sportsman or Elite. The Geovid Pro 32 now also offers advanced GPS tracking connectivity, Leica ProTrack, to guide the user to the target based on the last ranged measurement. The Geovid Pro 32 is the first premium rangefinder to feature GPS mapping integration through BaseMaps, Google Maps and Garmin mapping.”

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December 23rd, 2021

Amazing Applied Ballistics Rimfire Ammo Test — 50 Types Tested

.22 LR Rimfire Ammunition testing Bryan Litz Applied Ballistics Eley
Photo shows Bryan Litz (on right) and tester Mitchell Fitzpatrick. Bryan said: “Only 2,445 rounds to go! We’re testing over 50 ammo types in five different twist barrels… science can be exhausting!”

Do you know the actual BC (Ballistic Coefficient) of your rimfire ammunition? Well Applied Ballistics has the data, thanks to a comprehensive, marathon ammo testing session. Some years back, in an effort to determine the “real world” BCs of various rimfire ammo types, Bryan Litz and his team at Applied Ballistics did an extraordinary, in-depth shooting test. Litz and company tested over fifty types of .22 LR ammo, using five different twist-rate barrels. This was one of the most comprehensive and through rimfire ammo tests ever done.

.22 LR Rimfire Ammunition testing Bryan Litz Applied Ballistics Eley

.22 LR Rimfire Ammunition testingBryan tolds us: “We tested many types of .22 rimfire ammo for the 2nd Edition of the Ballistic Performance of Rifle Bullets book. We used a pair of Oehler chronographs to measure velocity at the muzzle (MV) and velocity at 100 yards.” With these numbers (average and SD) Bryan can calculate G1 BCs for all the 50+ types of rimfire ammo. What’s more, because every sample is shot through five different barrels (each with a different twist rate) Bryan can also determine how velocity is affected by twist rate.

The tests are primarily to determine velocities for BC calculations — this was not an accuracy test. Bryan explains: “Our tests are not really looking at accuracy, mainly because that’s so subjective to different rifles. Our testing is primarily focused on measuring the BC of rimfire rounds from different twist-rate barrels. The MVs and BCs from the different twist test barrels was then published by Applied Ballistics in print books. Bryan Litz told us: “The .22 LR Rimfire data was originally published in Ballistic Performance of Rifle Bullets, 2nd Edition, which is now out of print. The 3rd Edition of that book doesn’t have rimfire data. The rimfire testing results and data were re-published in Modern Advancements in Long Range Shooting – Volume II (along with many other topics).

Bringing Science to the Rimfire World
Bryan’s goal with this project was to increase the rimfire knowledge base: “We hope to give the world of .22 LR rimfire a good dose of science. How is the BC of .22 rimfire ammo affected by barrel twist? Do subsonic rounds have more consistent BCs than supersonic or transonic rounds? What brands have the highest BCs? What brands have the most consistent MVs?”

.22 LR Rimfire Ammunition testing Bryan Litz Applied Ballistics Eley
Data from two Oehler chronographs is recorded in a computer. Ammo samples were tested in five (5) different barrels (of varying twist rates). Give credit to Dane Hobbs who supplied a test rifle, multiple barrels, and most of the ammo types for the test.

.22 LR at 300 Yards?
Bryan also conducted some longer range rimfire tests. His interesting findings have appeared in the Modern Advancements in Long Range Shooting book series. Bryan notes: “While .22 rimfire isn’t typically considered ‘long range’, we were able to consistently hit a two-MOA steel target at 300 yards with the trajectory predicted by AB software and the measured BC of some standard .22 LR rimfire ammo. The info we’re generating may make it possible to push the range of target engagement for a round that’s not seen much advancement in many decades.”

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December 19th, 2021

How to Read the Wind — Expert Tips from Emil Praslick III

Berger Bullets Applied Ballistics Wind Reading Zero direction speed windy

Emil Praslick III is widely recognized as one of the greatest wind wizards on the planet — a master at identifying wind value and direction, and predicting wind cycles. As coach of the USAMU and top civilian teams, Emil has helped win many high-level championships. In the three videos we feature today, Emil, who works with Capstone Precision Group (Berger, Lapua, SK, Vihtavuori) and Team Applied Ballistics, explains how to determine wind direction and velocity using a variety of indicators. Praslick, now retired from the U.S. Army, was an 18-time National and 2-time World Champion coach with the USAMU.

Video ONE: Wind Theory Basics — Understanding “Wind Values”

In this video from UltimateReloader.com, Emil explains the basics of modern wind theory. To properly understand the effect of the wind you need to know both the velocity of the wind and its angle. The combination of those variables translates to the wind value. Emil also explains that the wind value may not be constant — it can cycle both in speed and velocity. Emil also explains some of the environmental conditions such as mirage that can reveal wind conditions.

Emil Praslick III Berger SWN Wind calling reading

Video TWO: Determining the Direction of the Wind

Key Point in Video — Find the Boil
Emil explains how to determine wind direction using optic. The method is to use spotting scope, riflescope, or binoculars to look for the “Boil” — the condition in mirage when the light waves rising straight up. The wind will generate that straight-up, vertical boil in your optics when it is blowing directly at you, or directly from your rear. To identify this, traverse your scope or optics until you see the boil running straight up. When you see that vertical boil, the direction your optic is pointing is aligned with the wind flow (either blowing towards you or from directly behind you).

Video THREE: The No Wind Zero Setting

In this second video, Emil defines the “No-Wind Zero”, and explains why competitive shooters must understand the no-wind zero and have their sights or optics set for a no-wind zero starting point before heading to a match. In order to hit your target, after determining wind speed and direction, says Emil, “you have to have your scope setting dialed to ‘no wind zero’ first.”

Emil Praslick III KO2M

Coach of Champions — Emil Praslick III
SFC Emil Praslick III, (U.S. Army, retired) works with Berger Bullets and Applied Ballistics. Emil served as the Head Coach of the U.S. National Long Range Rifle Team and Head Coach of the USAMU for several years. Teams coached by Emil have won 33 Inter-Service Rifle Championships. On top of that, teams he coached set 18 National records and 2 World Records. Overall, in the role of coach, Praslick can be credited with the most team wins of any coach in U.S. Military history.

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