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February 5th, 2023

Sunday GunDay: Cartridge Showcase — .17 to .50 Caliber and Up

caliber cartridge video showcase reviews cgi .22 LR flat-shooting

For today’s Sunday Gunday Feature, we provide a selection of videos showcasing rifle and pistol cartridge types — from tiny .17 caliber cases to 30mm cases (and a few even bigger rounds). Two of the videos use advance computer animation to provide 3D views of dozens of cartridge types. Then there are some expert commentaries by Jerry Miculek and Ron Spomer discussing the characteristics and performance of various cartridge types. Finally, we provide two videos that discuss rimfire cartridges and show how .22 LR rounds are produced in a modern CCI factory.

90 Different Rifle Cartridge Types in Computer Animation

In this rifle ammunition comparison animation there are 90 different cartridge types, from very small (.22 Flobert) to very, very big (20mm Vulcan). This video employs sophisticated, 3D CAD animation to showcase 90 different rifle cartridges, one after the other, in sequence. It covers from .17 Caliber up to 20mm. Obviously a lot of time and effort went into this video, but it really is cool to see so many different cartridge types in one 3.5-minute video.

caliber cartridge video showcase reviews cgi .22 LR flat-shooting

After the full line-up is complete at 1:41, the video then provides other smaller comparison, such as multiple large hunting cartridges (2:15) and .22 Caliber cartridges (2:45, see above). All the cartridge models are made using Autodesk Inventor software, and then the “line-up” animation was completed with Autodesk Showcase.

Cartridge Types Included (in Caliber Order, then Metric Order):

1) .17 HM2
2) .17 HMR
3) .204 Ruger
4) .218 Bee
5) .22 Flobert
6) .22 Hornet
7) .22 LR
8) .22 Magnum
9) .22 PPC
10) .22 Short
11) .220 Jaybird
12) .223 Rem/5.56x45mm
13) .223 WSSM
14) .224 Weatherby Magnum
15) .225 Winchester
16) .240 Weatherby Magnum
17) .243 Winchester
18) .25 Remington Auto
19) .250 Savage
20) .25-06 Remington
21) .256 Winchester Magnum
22) .257 Roberts
23) .260 Remington
24) .264 Winchester Magnum
25) .270 Weatherby Magnum
26) .270 Winchester
27) .280 British
28) .280 Remington
29) .284 Winchester
30) .30 Carbine
31) .300 H&H Magnum
32) .300 Rem Ultra Magnum
33) .300 Savage
34) .300 Winchester Magnum
35) .300 Win Short Mag (WSM)
36) .30-06 Springfield
37) .303 British
38) .30-30
39) .308 Norma Magnum
40) .308 Winchester
41) .32 Winchester Special
42) .325 WSM
43) .338 Lapua Magnum
44) .35 Whelen
45) .350 Remington Magnum
46) .375 H&H Magnum
47) .376 Steyr
48) .408 Cheyenne
49) .416 Remington Magnum
50) .416 Weatherby Magnum
51) .444 Marlin
52) .450 Marlin
53) .450 Nitro Express
54) .458 Win Magnum
55) .45×70
56) .460 Weatherby Magnum
57) .465 H&H Magnum
58) .470 Nitro Express
59) .50 BMG / 12.7×99 NATO
60) .500 jeffery
61) .505 Gibbs
62) .577 Nitro Express
63) .577 Tyrannosaur
64) .600 Nitro Express
65) .700 Nitro Express
66) .950 JDJ
67) 4.6×30 mm
68) 4.6x30mm
69) 5.6×50 Magnum
70) 5.7x28mm
71) 5mm/SMc
72) 6mm LEE
73) 6.5×55 Swedish
74) 6.5×6 mm Schuler
75) 6.8mm Remington SPC
76) 6mm PPC
77) 6×45 mm
78) 7mm Weatherby Magnum
79) 7mm Remington Magnum
80) 7mm Rem Ultra Magnum
81) 7.62×39 mm FMJ
82) 7.7×58 Arisaka
83) 7.95×57 Mauser
84) 8mm Remington Magnum
85) 9.3x62mm
86) 9.3×64 Brenneke
87) 14.5x114mm
88) 20mm Vulcan
89) 25mmx137mm
90) 30mmx173mm

Ammunition Size Line-Up — from Tiny to Massive

This animation video shows the size comparison of ammunition from a 2.34mm rimfire caliber to the massive 800mm caliber shell of the Schwerer Gustav railway cannon used by German forces in World War II. This video includes many common rifle and pistol cartridges/calibers, but also includes large artillery ammunition. This video has very good CGI Graphics. Below is part of the line-up from the .17 Remington Fireball (far left) to the famed .50 BMG (far right):

caliber cartridge video showcase reviews cgi .22 LR flat-shooting

Ammunition Types Showcased in this video:

2.34mm rimfire
2.7mm Kolibri
3mm Kolibri
4.25 mm Liliput
.17 Hornady Mach 2
.17 Remington Fireball
.17 Hornady Magnum Rimfire
.22 Long Rifle
.22 Winchester Magnum Rimfire
HK 4.6×30mm
4.6×36 Loffelspitz
5.45mmx18 MPTs
5.7×28mm SS190
.280 British 7×43
.297/230 Morris Short
.297/230 Morris Long
.30 Pedersen 7.65×20mm
7.92×33mm Kurz
.300 Winchester Short Magnum
8×50mmR Mannlicher
.499 LWR
.577/450 Martini–Henry
.600 Nitro Express
.470 Nitro Express
.50 Beowulf
.50 BMG
20×102 M55A3
25×137 M793
30×173 CPIC
30×211 vz.53
35×228 Oerlikon KD
L43 40x311mmR
L/70 40×365mmR
L/70 57mm
84×618mmR QF 20-PDR
120mm DM53
Obusier de 400 modèle
BL 18-inch railway howitzer
Obusier de 520 modèle
600mm Karl-Gerät
800mm Schwerer Gustav

Popular Cartridges/Calibers for Self-Defense and Hunting

This video focuses on popular calibers/cartridges used for self-defense and hunting. It provides a quick but informative overview of the capabilities (and intended uses) of many types of pistol, rifle, and shotgun ammunition. The video discusses the pros/cons of various cartridge types and explains how you would select ammo for a particular purposes (e.g. skeet loads vs. defense shotshells). If you are considering buying a carry pistol and are undecided about caliber choice, this is a good video to watch.

Flattest-Shooting Cartridges by Caliber (Ron Spomer)

In this 15-minute video, hunting expert Ron Spomer examines a variety of standard and wildcat cartridges from .17 caliber all the way to .338 caliber. For each caliber, Ron picks a flat-shooting “winner” and provides some ballistics comparison tables. This video is quite popular, with over 550,000 views on YouTube.

Ammo Types and Calibers — Jerry Miculek Explains the Basics

In this video, legendary shooter Jerry Miculek talks about popular types of pistol and rifle ammunition and the various bullet options used for plinking, competition, and self-defense. Jerry, one of the greatest pistol shooters on the planet, provides useful insights on cartridge selection and bullet choices. Jerry notes: “There are a TON of different types of ammunition” so he explains the basics. And Jerry answers common questions such as: “What is the difference between ball and hollow-point bullets?” and “What type of gun takes rimmed cartridge versus rimless?”.

.22 Caliber Rimfire Cartridges — Some Key Facts Revealed

We recommend all .22 rimfire shooters watch this video from Old English Outfitters. It explains some important facts and clarifies some common misconceptions about to .22 caliber ammunition. To learn more about modern .22 LR rimfire ammo, we also recommend the video below, which shows how CCI .22 LR ammunition is manufactured, start to finish.

BONUS Video — How .22 LR Ammunition Is Made

22 .22 Plinkster Youtube Video CCI Speer Rimfire Ammo Ammunition plant Lewiston Idaho

YouTube host 22Plinkster toured the CCI/Speer production facility in Lewiston, Idaho. While touring the plant, 22Plinkster was allowed to capture video showing the creation of .22 LR rounds from start to finish. This is a fascinating video, well worth watching.

This revealing video shows all phases of .22 LR ammo production including cupping, drawing, annealing, washing, drying, head-stamping, priming, powder charging, bullet seating, crimping, waxing, inspection, and final packaging. If you’ve got ten minutes to spare, we really recommend you watch the video from start to finish. You’ll definitely learn some new things about rimfire ammo.

The text in this article is Copyright 2023 by No text shall be republished on any other site without authorization and payment of license fees.

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February 5th, 2023

G1 vs. G7 Ballistic Coefficients — What You Need to Know

G1 G7 BC drag models

Over the past 12 months, this article was one of the TOP 20 most-read Daily Bulletin features. We’re reprising it today for those who may have missed it the first time. The above diagram comes from a TiborasurasRex YouTube Video comparing G1 and G7 BC models. CLICK HERE to watch the video.

The better, up-to-date ballistics programs let you select either G1 or G7 Ballistic Coefficient (BC) values when calculating a trajectory. The ballistic coefficient (BC) of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight. You’ve probably seen that G7 values are numerically lower than G1 values for the same bullet (typically). But that doesn’t mean you should select a G1 value simply because it is higher.

Some readers are not quite sure about the difference between G1 and G7 models. One forum member wrote us: “I went on the JBM Ballistics website to use the web-based Trajectory Calculator and when I got to the part that gives you a choice to choose between G1 and G7 BC, I was stumped. What determines how, or which one to use?”

The simple answer is the G1 value normally works better for shorter flat-based bullets, while the G7 value should work better for longer, boat-tailed bullets.

G1 vs. G7 Ballistic Coefficients — Which Is Right for You?
G1 and G7 refer both refer to aerodynamic drag models based on particular “standard projectile” shapes. The G1 shape looks like a flat-based bullet. The G7 shape is quite different, and better approximates the geometry of a modern long-range bullet. So, when choosing your drag model, G1 is preferable for flat-based bullets, while G7 is ordinarily a “better fit” for longer, boat-tailed bullets.

G1 G7 Ballistic coefficients

Drag Models — G7 is better than G1 for Long-Range Bullets
Many ballistics programs still offer only the default G1 drag model. Bryan Litz, author of Applied Ballistics for Long Range Shooting, believes the G7 standard is preferrable for long-range, low-drag bullets: “Part of the reason there is so much ‘slop’ in advertised BCs is because they’re referenced to the G1 standard which is very speed sensitive. The G7 standard is more appropriate for long range bullets. Here’s the results of my testing on two low-drag, long-range boat-tail bullets, so you can see how the G1 and G7 Ballistic coefficients compare:

G1 BCs, averaged between 1500 fps and 3000 fps:
Berger 180 VLD: 0.659 lb/in²
JLK 180: 0.645 lb/in²

The reason the BC for the JLK is less is mostly because the meplat was significantly larger on the particular lot that I tested (0.075″ vs 0.059″; see attached drawings).

For bullets like these, it’s much better to use the G7 standard. The following BCs are referenced to the G7 standard, and are constant for all speeds.

G7 BCs:
Berger 180 VLD: 0.337 lb/in²
JLK 180: 0.330 lb/in²

Many modern ballistics programs, including the free online JBM Ballistics Program, are able to use BCs referenced to G7 standards. When available, these BCs are more appropriate for long range bullets, according to Bryan.

[Editor’s NOTE: BCs are normally reported simply as an 0.XXX number. The lb/in² tag applies to all BCs, but is commonly left off for simplicity.]
This article is copyright 2023 No 3rd Party republication of this article is allowed without advance approval and payment of licensing fees.

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February 5th, 2023

How To Craft a Modified Case for Measuring Length to Lands

Hornady Stony Point Tool OAL O.A.L. gauge bullet seating length ogive checker

Our friend Gavin Gear has just released an excellent video showing how to make a threaded Modified Case for use with the Hornady Lock-N-Load Overall Length Gauge. You can watch Gavin make a Modified Case start to finish in the video below:

Video Shows How to Drill and Tap Modified Case

Gavin has some clever tricks. First he uses a sizing die to hold the cartridge case during the threading process. Second he uses two drill bits in sequence — a smaller bit to ream out the primer pocket, and then a larger “M” bit to increase the hole diameter before threading the brass. Finally he leaves the threading tap IN the brass, locks the tailstock, and then “gently pulls on the quill” to remove the brass from the die held in his lathe (See 5:46 timemark).

Modified Case Gavin Gear Ultimate Reloader

Get the Correct 5/16″-36 RH Tap
Unfortunately, Hornady has selected an uncommon thread type for OAL Gauges. You probably won’t be able to buy the correct 5/16″ – 36 RH HSS Tap at your local hardware store. However you CAN order this special tap from Amazon for $9.99.

Modified Case Q & A — TECH TIPS

Why do I need a Modified Case?
Every serious reloader should have a Modified Case for each cartridge type they shoot. The reason is that this allows you to get very precise measurements of the length-to-lands in your chamber. When used with the Hornady OAL Gauge, with some practice, you should be able to get repeatable length-to-lands measurements within about 0.015″. We generally do 4-5 measurements with the OAL Gauge and usually 3 or 4 will be “on the money”. NOTE: We recommend a gentle, easy pressure on the plastic pusher rod. Don’t push too hard or you will jam the bullet hard into the lands, which produces inconsistent results.

Can’t I Just Buy a Modified Case?
Hornady makes a variety of Modified Cases sold on Amazon and through retailers such as Midsouth. While Hornady makes modified cases for many standard cartridges, if you shoot a wildcat such as the 6mm Dasher or .284 Shehane, you’ll need to create a custom modified case. And even if you shoot a standard cartridge such as the .308 Win, you can get more consistent measurements with a custom Modified Case.

If you do decide to make your own modified case, you’ll want to start with a case that’s been fired in your rifle. That way you get the best fit to YOUR chamber. Also, you won’t need to expand the neck to provide bullet clearance. Then you need to drill out the primer pocket and tap the base of the case to match the threads on the Hornady OAL Gauge tool. Make at least two modified cases, as you’ll probably misplace one at some point.

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