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January 16th, 2022

Sunday Gunday: Remington 700 — History, X-Ray, Blueprinting

remington 700 bolt-action rifle gunday X-Ray Blueprinting

For today’s Sunday GunDay story, we look at the legendary Remington 700, perhaps the most popular American bolt-action rifle of all time. After covering the history of the Rem 700 rifle, we provide an inside look at the Rem 700 through a series of cutaway animations. Then we explain how gunsmiths can enhance a Remington 700 action through “blueprinting” procedures.

Remington 700 Origins and History

remington 700 manualAfter World War II, Remington Arms engineer Mike Walker began designing lower-cost alternatives to the Model 30, which resulted in the Model 721. These used a cylindrical receiver produced from cylindrical bar stock that could be turned on a lathe, rather than machined in a series of milling operations, which significantly reduced the cost of production. Further developments of the basic 721 action under the direction of Walker produced the Model 722 and Model 725, and ultimately in 1962, the Model 700.

Walker sought to increase the accuracy of the rifles, by utilizing tight tolerances in the chamber and bore, a short leade, and a very fast lock time. Like the earlier 721, the Remington 700 action was designed for mass production. Remington initially produced two variants of the Model 700, the ADL and BDL, in both long- and short-action versions. In 1969, Remington introduced upgrades for the rifle, including a longer rear bolt shroud, a jeweled bolt, and improved stock finishing. Four years later, production of left-handed Rem 700s began, to compete with the Savage Model 110, at that time the only major American-made left-bolt rifle.

Other Rem 700 versions include the titanium receiver 700ti, the 700 SPS (which replaced the ADL in 2005), and the CDL model. In addition to its development as a hunting rifle, the Model 700 also provided the basis for military and police sniper rifles, starting with the M40 rifle in 1966, which was initially ordered by the U.S. Marine Corps. The U.S. Army adopted the M24 Sniper Weapon System in 1986.

remington 700 bolt-action rifle gunday X-Ray Blueprinting
The Remington 700 is sold in both short action and long action variants. This photo is from the Big ED YouTube video comparing the two action lengths.

The Remington 700 is a manually-operated bolt action with two forward dual-opposed lugs. The bolt face is recessed, fully enclosing the base of the cartridge, The extractor is a C-clip sitting within the bolt face. The ejector is a plunger on the bolt face actuated by a coil spring. The bolt is of 3-piece construction, brazed together (head, body and bolt handle). The receiver is milled from round cross-section steel.

Chassis Systems for Remington 700s

With the popularity of the Remington 700 series rifles, and the availability of Rem 700 barreled actions by themselves, many companies have created after-market chassis systems. This GunMan YouTube Video reviews five modern chassis systems configured for Remington 700 barreled actions. Modular chassis systems have become particularly popular with PRS/NRL competitors.

Rem 700 Cutaway Video Shows Components + Operation

Ever wish you could look inside your rifle, to see how the trigger and fire-control system work? Well now that is possible with the magic of 3D computer graphics. Modern software allows detailed “cutaway” side-views (see below), as well as 3D views with 360° rotation. The software can also provide X-Ray-type views into the gun’s internals — as you can see above. And computer animation can show the complete firing process from trigger pull to chambering of the next round.

3d firearms modeling gun CGI software encylopedia gun disassembly

READERS — Do take the time to watch the video! This Rem 700 animation is really outstanding! EVERY bolt-action shooter should watch this video all the way through.

The Model 700 series of bolt-action rifles have been manufactured by Remington Arms since 1962. All are based on basically the same centerfire bolt action. They are typically sold with an internal magazine depending on caliber, some of which have a floor-plate for quick-unloading, and some of which are “blind” (no floor-plate). The Model 700 is a development of the Remington 721 and 722 series of rifles, which were introduced in 1948.

3d firearms modeling gun CGI software encylopedia gun disassembly

The Remington 700 is a manually-operated bolt action with forward, dual opposed lugs. It features “Cock On Opening”, meaning the upward rotation of the bolt when the rifle is opened cocks the firing pin. A cam mechanism pushes the firing pin’s cocking piece backward. The bolt face is recessed, fully enclosing the base of the cartridge. The extractor is a C-clip sitting within the bolt face. The ejector is a plunger on the bolt face actuated by a coil spring. The bolt is of 3-piece construction, brazed together (head, body. and bolt handle). The receiver is milled from round cross-section steel.

Blueprinting Rem 700 Action — Making a Good Action Better

Bill Marr Rifleshooter.com truing Remington Rem 700 action accurizing

Bill Marr Rifleshooter.com truing Remington Rem 700 action accurizingYou may have heard the phrase “blueprinting an action”, but do you know what that really means? Do you know what operations are done to an action during the blueprinting process? To help you understand, gunsmith Bill Marr of RifleShooter.com has created a helpful article showing a Rem 700 blueprinting job start to finish. This article spotlights how the procedures can be done with manual tools. Bill, who runs 782 Custom Gunworks Ltd., can also perform many of these operations with modern automated machinery. In fact, Bill has written a follow-up article on Truing a Rem 700 receiver with a Lathe.

Bill explains: “Blue-printing, or truing a rifle action, ensures the receiver face, threads, lugs, bolt lugs, and bolt face are square to the center line of the receiver.” In Bill’s informative article, Bill shows how he blueprints a Remington 700 short action receiver with .308 Win bolt face. He covers the following procedures step by step:

Action Disassembly
Ream Minor Diameter of Receiver Threads
Square the Receiver Lugs
Square the Face of the Receiver
Lap the Bolt Lugs
Square the Bolt Face

Bill employed a variety of tools from Brownells to complete the blueprinting job, including: Remington 700 Armorer’s Kit; Manson Receiver Accurizing Kit; Bolt Lapping Kit; Bolt Face Truing Tool; Manson Receiver Ring Facing Cutter; Multi-Vise with Jaw Pads; Silicone Carbide Abrasive; and Do-Drill Cutting Oil.

1. Truing the Receiver Face

Using the receiver facing tool, the front of the receiver is trued. The tool is placed over the tap and turned by hand. We used Do Drill to lubricate it.

Bill Marr Rifleshooter.com truing Remington Rem 700 action accurizing

2. Lapping the Lugs

The bolt lapping tool screws into the front of the action and applies rearward pressure on the bolt face. A little bit of lapping compound is placed on the front of the receiver lugs. The bolt handle is then raised and lowered repeatedly. Note — it is critical that we do not get any lapping compound on any other surfaces.

Bill Marr Rifleshooter.com truing Remington Rem 700 action accurizing

3. Truing the Bolt Face

On this bolt, the central part of the bolt face was low. After the truing operation, this Rem 700 bolt face is now completely square to the action.

Bill Marr Rifleshooter.com truing Remington Rem 700 action accurizing

READ Full Action Blueprinting Article HERE with 30+ Photos »

IMPORTANT: Rifleshooter.com states: “This article highlights our project and is presented for information purposes only. This provides an overview of the process and should not be attempted without the guidance and supervision of an experienced gunsmith“.

PT&G Pacific Tool Remington Rem 700 action accurizing

If you like the idea of a Blueprinted action, but do not have a good gunsmith nearby (or don’t want to wait many weeks), you can order high-grade blueprinted Remington 700 actions from Pacific Tool & Gauge starting at $637.99 (see above).

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January 16th, 2022

Grip on Bullet — Many Factors Involved, Not Just Bushing Size

case neck bushing reloading die tension bullet release

Many novice hand-loaders believe that neck bushing Inside Diameter (ID) size is the only important factor in neck tension. In fact, many different things will influence the grip on your bullet and its ability to release from the case neck. To learn more about neck tension and “case grip”, take the time to read this article carefully. We bet you’ll gain knowledge that will let you load more accurate ammo, with better ES/SD.

Editor: Guys, this is a VERY important article. You really should read it over carefully, twice. Variations in the force required to release a bullet can significantly affect accuracy and ES/SD. You really need to know how the grip on bullet can be altered by many different factors.

Neck Tension (i.e. Grip on Bullets) Is a Complex Phenomenon
While we certainly have considerable control over neck tension by using tighter or looser bushings (with smaller or bigger Inside Diameters), bushing size is only one factor at work. It’s important to understand the multiple factors that can increase or decrease the resistance to bullet release. Think in terms of overall brass-on-bullet “grip” instead of just bushing size (or the internal neck diameter in non-bushing full-length sizing dies).

Bullet grip is affected by many things, such as:

1. Neck-wall thickness.
2. Amount of bullet bearing surface (shank) in the neck.
3. Surface condition inside of neck (residual carbon can act as a lubricant; ultrasonic cleaning makes necks “grabby”).
4. Length of neck (e.g. 6mmBR neck vs. 6mm Dasher).
5. Whether or not the bullets have an anti-friction coating.
6.The springiness of the brass (which is related to degree of work-hardening; number of firings etc.)
7. The bullet jacket material.
8. The outside diameter of the bullet and whether it has a pressure ridge.
9. Time duration between bullet seating and firing (necks can stiffen with time).
10. How often the brass is annealed.
11. Amount (length) of neck sized (e.g. you can size only half the neck).
12. Interior diameter of bushing, or neck section of non-bushing die.


– and there are others…

One needs to understand that bushing size isn’t the beginning and end of neck tension questions, because, even if bushing size is held constant, the amount of bullet “grip” can change dramatically as the condition of your brass changes. Bullet “grip” can also change if you alter your seating depth, and it can even change if you ultrasonically clean your cases.

5-time U.S. National Long-Range Champion John Whidden adds: “Our tests show us that the condition of the necks in regards to lubed or not, carbon inside or not, squeaky clean or not, etc., matter even more than the size of the bushing used. An ultrasonically cleaned or brand new dry case neck make for some quite high seating force.”

Redding neck bushingsIn our Shooters’ Forum a reader recently asked: “How much neck tension should I use?” This prompted a Forum discussion in which other Forum members recommended a specific number based on their experience, such as .001″, .002″, or .003″. These numbers, as commonly used, correspond to the difference between case-neck OD after sizing and the neck OD of a loaded round, with bullet in place. In other words, the numbers refer to the nominal amount of interference fit (after sizing).

While these commonly-used “tension numbers” (of .001″, .002″ etc.) can be useful as starting points, neck tension is actually a fairly complex subject. The actual amount of “grip” on the bullet is a function of many factors, of which neck-OD reduction during sizing is just one. Understanding these many factors will help you maintain consistent neck tension as your brass “evolves” over the course of multiple reloadings.

Seating Depth Changes Can Increase or Decrease Grip on Bullet
You can do this simple experiment. Seat a boat-tail bullet in your sized neck with .150″ of bearing surface (shank) in the neck. Now remove the bullet with an impact hammer. Next, take another identical bullet and seat it with .300″ of bearing surface in another sized case (same bushing size/same nominal tension). You’ll find the deeper-seated bullet is gripped much harder.

PPC lapua brassNeck-Wall Thickness is Important Too
I have also found that thinner necks, particularly the very thin necks used by many PPC shooters, require more sizing to give equivalent “grip”. Again, do your own experiment. Seat a bullet in a case turned to .008″ neckwall thickness and sized down .003″. Now compare that to a case with .014″ neckwall thickness and sized down .0015″. You may find that the bullet in the thin necks actually pulls out easier, though it supposedly has more “neck tension”, if one were to consider bushing size alone.

In practical terms, because thick necks are less elastic than very thin necks, when you turn necks you may need to run tighter bushings to maintain the same amount of actual grip on the bullets (as compared to no-turn brass). Consequently, I suspect the guys using .0015″ “tension” on no-turn brass may be a lot closer to the guys using .003″ “tension” on turned necks than either group may realize.

Toward a Better Definition of Neck Tension
As a convenient short-cut, we tend to describe neck tension by bushing size alone. When a guy says, “I run .002 neck tension”, that normally means he is using a die/bushing that sizes the necks .002″ smaller than a loaded round. Well we know something about his post-sizing neck OD, but do we really have a reliable idea about how much force is required to release his bullets? Maybe not… This use of the term “neck tension” when we are really only describing the amount of neck diameter reduction with a die/bushing is really kind of incomplete.

My point here is that it is overly simplistic to ask, “should I load with .001 tension or .003?” In reality, an .001″ reduction (after springback) on a thick neck might provide MORE “grip” on a deep-seated bullet than an .003″ reduction on a very thin-walled neck holding a bullet with minimal bearing surface in the neck. Bushing ID is something we can easily measure and verify. We use bushing size as a descriptor of neck tension because it is convenient and because the other important factors are hard to quantify. But those factors shouldn’t be ignored if you want to maintain consistent neck tension for optimal accuracy.

Consistency and accuracy — that’s really what this all about isn’t it? We want to find the best neck tension for accuracy, and then maintain that amount of grip-on-bullet over time. To do that you need to look not only at your bushing size, but also at how your brass has changed (work-hardened) with time, and whether other variables (such as the amount of carbon in the neck) have changed. Ultimately, optimal neck tension must be ascertained experimentally. You have to go out and test empirically to see what works, in YOUR rifle, with YOUR bullets and YOUR brass. And you may have to change the nominal tension setting (i.e. bushing size) as your brass work-hardens or IF YOU CHANGE SEATING DEPTHS.

Remember that bushing size alone does not tell us all we need to know about the neck’s true “holding power” on a bullet, or the energy required for bullet release. True bullet grip is a more complicated phenomenon, one that is affected by numerous factors, some of which are very hard to quantify.

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January 16th, 2022

Ten Best Bolt-Action Rifles Ever — Do You Agree with This List?

Ten 10 best bolt action rifles shooter

A while back, RifleShooter online magazine published a list of the purported Ten Best Bolt-Action Rifles of All Time. Ten classic rifle designs (including the Remington 700, Winchester Model 70, Weatherby V, and Mauser 98) were featured with a paragraph or two explaining their notable features.

“Best” Lists Stir Controversy…
These Top 10 lists are always controversial. While most readers might approve of half the entries, there are always some items on the Top 10 list that some readers would challenge. Here is RifleShooter’s Top 10 list. What do you think? Are there some other bolt-actions that are more deserving?

1. Springfield M1903
2. Mauser 98
3. Winchester Model 70
4. Remington Model 700
5. Weatherby V

6. Sako L61/AV
7. Savage Model 110
8. Ruger M77
9. Tikka T3
10. Mannlicher-Schonauer

10bolt1402.

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